• Dr. Hurd has practiced clinical reproductive endocrinology and infertility for over 3 decades at a number of Universities and currently holds the academic ranks of Professor Emeritus of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Duke University School of Medicine, and Adjunct Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the University of Alabama School of Medicine. His clinical interests include infertility, in vitro fertilization and polycystic ovary syndrome. He is the past Chief Medical Officer of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Dr. Hurd has edited a number of textbooks, including “Clinical Reproductive Medicine and Surgery” with Tommaso Falcone, now in its 3rd edition.
  • Selected Publications

    Academic Article

    Year Title Altmetric
    2021 To treat or not to treat: perceptions of the initial American Society for Reproductive Medicine COVID-19 recommendations among women’s health providersJournal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics.  38:621-626. 2021
    2020 Recommendations for reducing the risk of viral transmission during fertility treatment with the use of autologous gametes: a committee opinionFertility and Sterility.  114:1158-1164. 2020
    2020 Testing and interpreting measures of ovarian reserve: a committee opinionFertility and Sterility.  114:1151-1157. 2020
    2020 Mitochondria in Ovarian Aging and Reproductive LongevityAgeing Research Reviews.  63. 2020
    2020 Congenital Uterine Malformation by Experts (CUME): diagnostic criteria for T-shaped uterus 2020
    2020 Evidence-based treatments for couples with unexplained infertility: a guidelineFertility and Sterility.  113:305-322. 2020
    2020 Interpretation of clinical trial results: a committee opinionFertility and Sterility.  113:295-304. 2020
    2019 Hysteroscopic Endometrial Polypectomy with Manual Vacuum Aspiration Compared to Mechanical MorcellationJournal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology.  26:1050-1055. 2019
    2019 Postoperative adhesions in gynecologic surgery: a committee opinionFertility and Sterility.  112:458-463. 2019
    2019 Fertility treatment when the prognosis is very poor or futile: an Ethics Committee opinionFertility and Sterility.  111:659-663. 2019
    2019 Fertility and ovarian reserve among women with rheumatoid arthritisJournal of Rheumatology.  46:455-459. 2019
    2018 The two FIGO systems for normal and abnormal uterine bleeding symptoms and classification of causes of abnormal uterine bleeding in the reproductive years: 2018 revisionsInternational Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics.  143:393-408. 2018
    2018 The Effect of Age and Body Mass Index on the Surgical Anatomy of Supraumbilical Port Insertion: Implications for Laparoscopic and Robotic SurgeryGynecologic and Obstetric Investigation.  83:546-551. 2018
    2018 Clinical, Hormonal, and Metabolic Parameters in Women with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional StudyJournal of Women's Health.  27:659-664. 2018
    2018 Congenital Uterine Malformation by Experts (CUME): better criteria for distinguishing between normal/arcuate and septate uterus? 2018
    2017 On the Road to Safer MorcellationObstetrics and Gynecology.  129:976-978. 2017
    2017 What is new in minimally invasive surgery? best articles from the past yearObstetrics and Gynecology.  129:575-577. 2017
    2016 State Insurance Mandates and Multiple Birth Rates after in Vitro FertilizationObstetrics and Gynecology.  128:1205-1214. 2016
    2016 Modified Open Laparoscopy Using a 5-mm LaparoscopeObstetrics and Gynecology.  127:535-538. 2016
    2016 Proteoglycans in leiomyoma and normal myometrium: Abundance, steroid hormone control, and implications for pathophysiologyReproductive Sciences.  23:302-309. 2016
    2016 Waiting to Conceive After an Early Pregnancy LossObstetrics and Gynecology.  127:197-198. 2016
    2015 Abundance and Localization of Progesterone Receptor Isoforms in Endometrium in Women with and Without Endometriosis and in Peritoneal and Ovarian Endometriotic ImplantsReproductive Sciences.  22:1153-1161. 2015
    2015 Does progesterone supplementation improve pregnancy rates in clomiphene citrate and intrauterine insemination treatment cycles?Gynecological Endocrinology.  31:229-232. 2015
    2014 Case reports in the era of evidence-based medicineObstetrics and Gynecology.  124:409-410. 2014
    2014 Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery for management of ovarian Endometriomas 2014
    2014 Relationship between human chorionic gonadotropin serum levels and the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndromeGynecological Endocrinology.  30:294-297. 2014
    2013 Standardization of laparoscopic pelvic examination: A proposal of a novel systemMinimally Invasive Surgery.  2013. 2013
    2013 What is new in intrauterine devices? best articles from the past yearObstetrics and Gynecology.  122:902-903. 2013
    2013 Conflicts of interest and medical publishingObstetrics and Gynecology.  122:511-512. 2013
    2013 Hypoplastic vagina, partial vaginal septum, and coexisting hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: An unusual case of primary amenorrheaJournal of Gynecologic Surgery.  29:19-22. 2013
    2013 Robotic-assisted hysterectomy for the management of severe endometriosis: A retrospective review of short-term surgical outcomes 2013
    2012 Diagnosis and Management of Endometrial HyperplasiaJournal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology.  19:562-571. 2012
    2012 Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery in patients with benign adnexal disease: A comparative studyGynecologic and Obstetric Investigation.  73:294-298. 2012
    2012 Progesterone receptor-A and -B have opposite effects on proinflammatory gene expression in human myometrial cells: Implications for progesterone actions in human pregnancy and parturitionJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.  97. 2012
    2012 Proteoglycans of uterine fibroids and keloid scars: Similarity in their proteoglycan compositionBiochemical Journal.  443:361-368. 2012
    2012 The potential for community exposures to pathogens from an urban dairyJournal of Environmental Health.  74:22-28. 2012
    2012 Cardiac myxoma presenting as dyspnea after cesarean deliveryCase Reports in Medicine.  2012. 2012
    2012 Polycystic ovary syndrome and diabetes screening: A survey of gynecologists and reproductive endocrinologists 2012
    2012 The risk of umbilical hernia and other complications with laparoendoscopic single-site surgeryJournal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology.  19:40-45. 2012
    2011 Comparison of diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance screening methods for women with polycystic ovary syndromeFertility and Sterility.  96:1043-1047. 2011
    2011 Reply of the authorsFertility and Sterility.  96. 2011
    2011 Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog cotreatment for preservation of ovarian function during gonadotoxic chemotherapy: A systematic review and meta-analysisFertility and Sterility.  95. 2011
    2011 Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Salpingectomy in Isthmic and Ampullary Ectopic Pregnancy: Preliminary Report and TechniqueJournal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology.  18:230-233. 2011
    2011 Prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in a cohort of Arab women with polycystic ovary syndromeInternational Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics.  114:288-289. 2011
    2010 Avoiding major vessel injury during laparoscopic instrument insertionObstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America.  37:387-397. 2010
    2010 Surgical strategies for fertility preservation in women with cancerCurrent Women's Health Reviews.  6:167-176. 2010
    2010 Current diagnosis and treatment of interstitial pregnancyAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.  202:15-29. 2010
    2010 Recognition and management of major vessel injury during laparoscopyJournal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology.  17:692-702. 2010
    2009 Ectopic pregnancy: Role of laparoscopic treatmentClinical Obstetrics and Gynecology.  52:372-379. 2009
    2009 Robotic gynecologic surgeryObstetrics and Gynecology.  114:168. 2009
    2009 Recent Innovations in Minimally Invasive Surgery and Implications for GynecologyJournal of Gynecologic Surgery.  25:67-72. 2009
    2009 Seasonal changes in airborne fungi and bacteria at a dairy cattle concentrated animal feeding operation in the southwest United StatesJournal of Environmental Health.  71:40-44. 2009
    2009 Left upper quadrant laparoscopic placement: effects of insertion angle and body mass index on distance to posterior peritoneum by magnetic resonance imagingAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.  201:522.e1-522.e5. 2009
    2008 Differential regulation of myometrial prostaglandin production by changes in lengthAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.  198:225.e1-225.e4. 2008
    2008 Quantitative microbial risk assessment of a drinking water - Wastewater cross-connection simulationJournal of Environmental Engineering and Science.  7:525-530. 2008
    2008 Rectovaginal examinations and human papillomavirus: can we decrease the risk of colorectal infection?American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.  198:260.e1-260.e2. 2008
    2007 Laparoscopic positioning and nerve injuriesJournal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology.  14:664-672. 2007
    2007 Effects of peritoneal closure and suture material on adhesion formation in a rabbit modelAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.  197:644.e1-644.e5. 2007
    2006 Challenges to our understanding of endometriosis painJournal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology.  13:576-577. 2006
    2006 Physician roles in aeromedical evacuation: Current practices in USAF operationsAerospace medicine and human performance.  77:631-638. 2006
    2006 Effect of magnesium sulfate on contractile force and intracellular calcium concentration in pregnant human myometriumAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.  194:1384-1390. 2006
    2004 Magnesium sulfate induces translocation of protein kinase C isoenzymes alpha and delta in myometrial cells from pregnant womenAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.  190:522-527. 2004
    2003 Keys to minimizing liability in obstetricsContemporary OB/GYN.  48:81-96. 2003
    2003 Postpartum seizure prophylaxis: Using maternal clinical parameters to guide therapy [2] (multiple letters)Obstetrics and Gynecology.  102:196-197. 2003
    2003 Visualization of the epigastric vessels and bladder before laparoscopic trocar placementFertility and Sterility.  80:209-212. 2003
    2003 Patient rotation and resolution of unilateral cornual obstruction during hysterosalpingographyObstetrics and Gynecology.  101:1275-1278. 2003
    2002 Complications associated with optical-access laparoscopic trocarsObstetrics and Gynecology.  99:553-555. 2002
    2002 Complications associated with optical-access laparoscopic trocars [3] (multiple letters)Obstetrics and Gynecology.  100:614-615. 2002
    2002 Magnesium sulfate inhibits the oxytocin-induced production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in cultured human myometrial cellsAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.  187:419-424. 2002
    2001 Electroejaculation and assisted reproductive technologies in the treatment of anejaculatory infertilityFertility and Sterility.  76:1249-1255. 2001
    2001 Computed tomography and locating ureters in relation to the uterine cervix [2] (multiple letters)American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.  185:1009-1010. 2001
    2001 Hematometra after thermal balloon endometrial ablation in a patient with cervical incompetenceJournal of Laparoendoscopic and Advanced Surgical Techniques.  11:311-313. 2001
    2001 Effect of carbon dioxide on human ovarian carcinoma cell growthAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.  185:1314-1317. 2001
    2001 Location of the ureters in relation to the uterine cervix by computed tomographyAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.  184:336-339. 2001
    2000 Expression of protein kinase C isozymes in nonpregnant and pregnant human myometriumAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.  183:1525-1531. 2000
    2000 Laparoscopic secondary port conversion using a reusable blunt conical trocarObstetrics and Gynecology.  96:634-635. 2000
    2000 Legitimizing the stepchild: Organizing and expanding fellowship opportunities in endoscopic surgeryJournal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology.  7:299-300. 2000
    1999 Chronic pelvic pain and endometriosisContemporary reviews in obstetrics and gynaecology.  11:289-295. 1999
    1999 Effects of hypoxia on cells of the human uterus: Implications for the use of Tourniquets during myomectomyJournal of Gynecologic Techniques.  5:101-104. 1999
    1999 Is a third-trimester antibody screen in Rh+ women necessary?American Journal of Managed Care.  5:1145-1150. 1999
    1999 Hormonal treatment of an endometrial stromal nodule followed by local excisionObstetrics and Gynecology.  93:805-807. 1999
    1999 Transforming growth factor-β differentially inhibits epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells from primary and metastatic isolates without up-regulation of p21(WAF1)Cancer.  85:1810-1815. 1999
    1999 Bowel considerations in gynecologic surgeryPrimary care update for Ob/Gyns.  6:66-71. 1999
    1999 Criteria that indicate endometriosis is the cause of chronic pelvic pain [1] (multiple letters)Obstetrics and Gynecology.  93:473. 1999
    1999 Effect of cocaine on intracellular calcium regulation in myometrium from pregnant womenReproductive Sciences.  6:147-152. 1999
    1999 Occult bladder injury during laparoscopy: Report of two casesJournal of Laparoendoscopic and Advanced Surgical Techniques.  9:341-345. 1999
    1998 When to measure serum estrogen in women taking HRT?Consultant.  38:245. 1998
    1998 Comparison of low-technology and high-technology monitoring of clomiphene citrate ovulation inductionFertility and Sterility.  70:165-168. 1998
    1998 Effect of cocaine on cytoplasmic calcium and IP3 production in human myometrial cells 1998
    1998 Size of the urogenital hiatus in the levator ani muscles in normal women and women with pelvic organ prolapseObstetrics and Gynecology.  91:364-368. 1998
    1998 Cocaine augments contractility of the pregnant human uterus by both adrenergic and nonadrenergic mechanismsAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.  178:1077-1081. 1998
    1998 Criteria that indicate endometriosis is the cause of chronic pelvic painObstetrics and Gynecology.  92:1029-1032. 1998
    1998 Location of the Transverse Colon in Relationship to the Umbilicus: Implications for Laparoscopic TechniquesJournal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology.  5:385-388. 1998
    1997 Expectant management versus elective curettage for the treatment of spontaneous abortionFertility and Sterility.  68:601-606. 1997
    1997 Comparison of the ultrasonic scalpel to CO2 laser and electrosurgery in terms of tissue injury and adhesion formation in a rabbit modelFertility and Sterility.  67:382-386. 1997
    1997 Instrument cleaning services: A patch or another hale in the bucket? [2] (multiple letters)Fertility and Sterility.  68:566-567. 1997
    1997 The role of irrigation in the development of hypothermia during laparoscopic surgeryAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.  176:598-602. 1997
    1997 There's a hole in my bucket: The cost of disposable instrumentsFertility and Sterility.  67:13-15. 1997
    1996 Cocaine and β-adrenergic receptor function in pregnant myometriumAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.  175:1651-1653. 1996
    1996 Cocaine downregulates beta-adrenergic receptors in pregnant sheep myometriumReproductive Toxicology.  10:119-123. 1996
    1996 Laparoscopic transillumination for the location of anterior abdominal wall blood vesselsJournal of laparoendoscopic surgery.  6:167-169. 1996
    1996 Luteal support with both estradiol and progesterone after clomiphene citrate stimulation for in vitro fertilizationFertility and Sterility.  66:587-592. 1996
    1995 The location of abdominal wall blood vessels in relationship to abdominal landmarks apparent at laparoscopyACOG Current Journal Review.  8:7. 1995
    1995 A comparison of the relative risk of vessel injury with conical versus pyramidal laparoscopic trocars in a rabbit modelAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.  173:1731-1733. 1995
    1995 Characterization of the effect of cocaine on catecholamine uptake by pregnant myometriumObstetrics and Gynecology.  85:93-96. 1995
    1995 Decrease in myometrial beta-adrenergic receptors with prenatal cocaine useObstetrics and Gynecology.  85:357-360. 1995
    1995 Third stage of labor: Analysis of duration and clinical practiceAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.  172:1279-1284. 1995
    1995 Vascular anatomy of the anterior abdominal wall in gynecology and obstetrics [5]American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.  172:1944-1945. 1995
    1994 Repair of the traumatically ruptured gravid uterus: A report of two cases resulting in viable pregnancies 1994
    1994 Open laparoscopy without special instruments or sutures: Comparison with a closed technique 1994
    1994 A gestational-age-independent model of birth weight based on placental size 1994
    1994 Blunt trocar laparoscopyFertility and Sterility.  61:1177-1180. 1994
    1994 Inhibition of adhesion reformation in the rabbit model by meclofenamate: An inhibitor of both prostaglandin and leukotriene productionFertility and Sterility.  62:1262-1265. 1994
    1994 Open laparoscopy without special instruments or sutures: Comparison with a closed techniqueObstetrical and Gynecological Survey.  49:687-688. 1994
    1994 The location of abdominal wall blood vessels in relationship to abdominal landmarks apparent at laparoscopyAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.  171:642-646. 1994
    1994 Urologic laparoscopy with a new blunt-tipped trocar: Safe, rapid access without the use of fascial suturesUrology.  43:861-864. 1994
    1994 Vaginal delivery from the persistent occiput posterior position: Influence on maternal and neonatal morbidityObstetrical and Gynecological Survey.  49:530-532. 1994
    1993 Vaginal delivery from the persistent occiput posterior position: Influence on maternal and neonatal morbidity 1993
    1993 Etiology of closure-related adhesion formation after wedge resection of the rabbit ovary 1993
    1993 Cocaine selectively inhibits β-adrenergic receptor binding in pregnant human myometriumAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.  169:644-649. 1993
    1993 Comparison of intracervical, intrauterine, and intratubal techniques for donor inseminationFertility and Sterility.  59:339-342. 1993
    1993 For sperm - Is closer to the egg an advantage or liability? [1]Fertility and Sterility.  60:376-377. 1993
    1993 Kallmann's syndrome: Pregnancy achieved through gamete intrafallopian transferFertility and Sterility.  60:737-739. 1993
    1993 Laparoscopic injury of abdominal wall blood vessels: A report of three casesObstetrics and Gynecology.  82:673-676. 1993
    1993 Laparoscopic irrigation using a prewarmed pressurized systemJournal of laparoendoscopic surgery.  3:573-575. 1993
    1992 Allergic reactions to penicillin during in vitro fertilization and intrauterine inseminationFertility and Sterility.  58:847-849. 1992
    1992 Motility longevity of sperm samples processed for intrauterine inseminationFertility and Sterility.  58:436-438. 1992
    1992 The effect of cocaine on sperm motility characteristics and bovine cervical mucus penetrationFertility and Sterility.  57:178-182. 1992
    1992 The relationship of the umbilicus to the aortic bifurcation: Implications for laparoscopic techniqueObstetrics and Gynecology.  80:48-51. 1992
    1991 Cocaine blocks extraneuronal uptake of norepinephrine by the pregnant human uterusObstetrics and Gynecology.  78:249-253. 1991
    1991 Cocaine directly augments the α-adrenergic contractile response of the pregnant rabbit uterusAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.  164:182-187. 1991
    1991 Prostaglandins modulate hormonal effects on rabbit myometrial α1-adrenergic responses 1991
    1987 Pregnancy associated with both insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and sickle cell disease. A report of two cases 1987
    1983 Selective management of abruptio placentae: A prospective studyObstetrics and Gynecology.  61:467-473. 1983
    1982 Pregnancy associated with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuriaObstetrics and Gynecology.  60:742-746. 1982
    1981 Pericardial effusion in sickle cell anemia: a rare problem.Virginia medical quarterly : VMQ.  108:553-556. 1981
    1981 Microsurgical reversal of female sterilization.Fertility and Sterility.  36:122-123. 1981
    1980 Comparison of actual and simulated EMG biofeedback in the treatment of hemiplegic patientsAmerican Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.  59:73-82. 1980
    1980 Acquired Functional Asplenia: Association With Spontaneous Rupture of the Spleen and Fatal Spontaneous Rupture of the Liver in AmyloidosisJAMA Internal Medicine.  140:844-845. 1980


    Year Title Altmetric
    2019 Aeromedical Evacuation Management of Acute and Stabilized Patients 2019
    2017 Foreword 2017
    2017 Clinical Reproductive Medicine and Surgery A Practical Guide 2017


    Year Title Altmetric
    2017 An 8 cm subserosal fibroid in a patient with unexplained infertility and pain.  107-123. 2017
    2015 Endometriosis.  203-222. 2015
    2012 Ovarian tissue cryopreservation and autotransplantation.  107-119. 2012

    Research Overview

  • Dr. Hurd's research has focused primarily on infertility, IVF, insulin resistance and surgical safety, and he has authored more than 150 articles and chapters.

    Keywords - Infertility, IVF, insulin resistance, surgical safety
  • Education And Training

  • Doctor of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham 1979
  • Full Name

  • William Hurd