• Timmy Lee, M.D., M.S.P.H is a Professor of Medicine in the Department of Medicine and Division of Nephrology with a secondary appointment in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Dr. Lee received his medical degree at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport and completed his Internal medicine residency and Nephrology fellowship at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Nephrology research fellowship at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and Master of Science in Public Health at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Dr. Lee is the Vice Chair for Research in the Department of Medicine at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and Section Chief of Nephrology at the Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center. He also serves as the Associate Director of Interventional Nephrology, Associate Nephrology Fellowship Director, Associate Director of the Nephrology Research Training Center in the Division of Nephrology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and Director of the Hemodialysis Program at the Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Dr. Lee has been involved in hemodialysis vascular access research since 2002 and has over 80 publications in vascular access research. He has active research programs in clinical trials and large epidemiologic studies in dialysis vascular access and a laboratory-based translational research program in dialysis vascular access studying human vascular access blood vessel tissue biorepositories and mechanisms of arteriovenous fistula dysfunction using animal models (mouse, rat, and pig). The goal of his research program is to develop novel therapeutics to prevent and treat complications of hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction and improve the delivery and processes of care for patients requiring a hemodialysis vascular access. Dr. Lee’s research program is currently funded by the National Institutes of Health, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and foundation grants.
  • Selected Publications

    Academic Article

    Year Title Altmetric
    2023 Cardiac changes following arteriovenous fistula creation in a mouse model 2023
    2022 Study protocol for Vascular Access outcome measure for function: a vaLidation study In hemoDialysis (VALID): A multi-center, multinational validation study to assess the accuracy and feasibility of measuring vascular access function in clinical practiceBMC Nephrology.  23. 2022
    2022 Racial Disparities in Arteriovenous Fistula Use Among Hemodialysis Patients: The Role of Surgeon SupplyKidney International Reports.  7:1575-1584. 2022
    2022 Nitric oxide releasing nanomatrix gel treatment inhibits venous intimal hyperplasia and improves vascular remodeling in a rodent arteriovenous fistulaClinical materials.  280. 2022
    2021 Analysis of Geometric and Hemodynamic Profiles in Rat Arteriovenous Fistula Following PDE5A InhibitionFrontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology.  9. 2021
    2020 Racial disparities in the arteriovenous fistula care continuum in hemodialysis patientsClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.  15:1796-1803. 2020
    2020 The New Age of Vascular Access: Choosing the Right Access for the Right Reason in Older Hemodialysis PatientsAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases.  76:457-459. 2020
    2020 The geometry of arteriovenous fistulas using endothelial nitric oxide synthase mouse models. 2020
    2020 Vasoreactivity of the Murine External Jugular Vein and Carotid ArteryJournal of Vascular Research.  57:291-301. 2020
    2020 A Novel Model of Balloon Angioplasty Injury in Rat Arteriovenous FistulaJournal of Vascular Research.  57:223-235. 2020
    2020 Early predictors of arteriovenous fistula maturation: A novel perspective on an enduring problemJournal of the American Society of Nephrology.  31:1617-1627. 2020
    2020 Perspectives in Individualizing Solutions for Dialysis AccessAdvances in Chronic Kidney Disease.  27:183-190. 2020
    2020 Identifying critically important vascular access outcomes for trials in haemodialysis: An international survey with patients, caregivers and health professionalsNephrology Dialysis Transplantation.  35:657-668. 2020
    2020 KDOQI Clinical Practice Guideline for Vascular Access: 2019 UpdateAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases.  75:S1-S164. 2020
    2020 Research themes and trends in ten top-ranked nephrology journals: A text mining analysisAmerican Journal of Nephrology.  51:147-159. 2020
    2020 Assessment of ICAM-1 N-glycoforms in mouse and human models of endothelial dysfunctionPLoS One.  15. 2020
    2019 Author Correction: The effect of endothelial nitric oxide synthase on the hemodynamics and wall mechanics in murine arteriovenous fistulas (Scientific Reports, (2019), 9, 1, (4299), 10.1038/s41598-019-40683-7)Scientific Reports.  9. 2019
    2019 The effect of endothelial nitric oxide synthase on the hemodynamics and wall mechanics in murine arteriovenous fistulasScientific Reports.  9. 2019
    2019 Clinical Outcomes and Economic Impact of Starting Hemodialysis with a Catheter after Predialysis Arteriovenous Fistula CreationAmerican Journal of Nephrology.  50:221-227. 2019
    2019 Arteriovenous conduits for hemodialysis: How to better modulate the pathophysiological vascular response to optimize vascular access durability 2019
    2019 Mineral Metabolism Disturbances and Arteriovenous Fistula MaturationEuropean Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery.  57:719-728. 2019
    2019 Correction to: High resolution hemodynamic profiling of murine arteriovenous fistula using magnetic resonance imaging and computational fluid dynamics (Theor Biol Med Model (2017) 14 (5) DOI: 10.1186/s12976-017-0053-x)Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling.  16. 2019
    2019 A randomized trial of vonapanitase (PATENCY-1) to promote radiocephalic fistula patency and use for hemodialysisJournal of Vascular Surgery.  69:507-515. 2019
    2019 Gender Disparities in Vascular Access Surgical Outcomes in Elderly Hemodialysis PatientsAmerican Journal of Nephrology.  49:11-19. 2019
    2019 Long-term outcomes of arteriovenous fistulas with unassisted versus assisted maturation: A retrospective national hemodialysis cohort studyJournal of the American Society of Nephrology.  30:2209-2218. 2019
    2018 Choice of a second vascular access in hemodialysis patients whose initial arteriovenous fistula failed to matureJournal of Vascular Surgery.  68:1858-1864.e1. 2018
    2018 Implementing core outcomes in kidney disease: report of the Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology (SONG) implementation workshopKidney International.  94:1053-1068. 2018
    2018 Tradeoffs in Vascular Access Selection in Elderly Patients Initiating Hemodialysis With a CatheterAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases.  72:509-518. 2018
    2018 Postoperative ultrasound, unassisted maturation, and subsequent primary patency of arteriovenous fistulasClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.  13:1364-1372. 2018
    2018 Acute Kidney Injury before Dialysis Initiation Predicts Adverse Outcomes in Hemodialysis PatientsAmerican Journal of Nephrology.  47:427-434. 2018
    2018 Medicare Costs Associated With Arteriovenous Fistulas Among US Hemodialysis PatientsAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases.  72:10-18. 2018
    2018 Relationships Between Clinical Processes and Arteriovenous Fistula Cannulation and Maturation: A Multicenter Prospective Cohort StudyAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases.  71:677-689. 2018
    2018 Report of the Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology–Hemodialysis (SONG-HD) Consensus Workshop on Establishing a Core Outcome Measure for Hemodialysis Vascular AccessAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases.  71:690-700. 2018
    2018 Definitions and end points for interventional studies for arteriovenous dialysis accessClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.  13:501-512. 2018
    2018 Comparison of postoperative ultrasound criteria to predict unassisted use of arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysis 2018
    2018 Vascular Access Outcomes Reported in Maintenance Hemodialysis Trials: A Systematic ReviewAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases.  71:382-391. 2018
    2017 The clinical and economic effect of vascular access selection in patients initiating hemodialysis with a catheterJournal of the American Society of Nephrology.  28:3679-3687. 2017
    2017 Vascular access type and clinical outcomes among elderly patients on hemodialysisClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.  12:1823-1830. 2017
    2017 Fistula First Initiative: Historical Impact on Vascular Access Practice Patterns and Influence on Future Vascular Access CareCardiovascular Engineering and Technology.  8:244-254. 2017
    2017 Micro-RNA profiling as a predictor of clinical outcomes for head and neck cancer patientsCurrent Pharmaceutical Design.  23:4729-4744. 2017
    2017 High resolution hemodynamic profiling of murine arteriovenous fistula using magnetic resonance imaging and computational fluid dynamicsTheoretical Biology and Medical Modelling.  14. 2017
    2017 Reassessing recommendations for choice of vascular accessClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.  12:865-867. 2017
    2017 The use of a multidimensional measure of dialysis adequacy—moving beyond small solute kineticsClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.  12:839-847. 2017
    2016 Predictors of initiation for predialysis arteriovenous fistulaClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.  11:1802-1808. 2016
    2016 Reduced Cardiovascular Mortality Associated with Early Vascular Access Placement in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney DiseaseAmerican Journal of Nephrology.  43:334-340. 2016
    2016 Association of peritonitis with hemodialysis catheter dependence after modality switchClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.  11:1999-2004. 2016
    2016 From barrier protection to showering: Extraluminal prophylaxis and management of catheter infectionsSeminars in Dialysis.  29:194-196. 2016
    2016 New insights into dialysis vascular access: Molecular targets in arteriovenous fistula and arteriovenous graft failure and their potential to improve vascular access outcomesClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.  11:1504-1512. 2016
    2015 Outcomes of elderly patients after predialysis vascular access creationJournal of the American Society of Nephrology.  26:3133-3140. 2015
    2015 Accessory Vein Obliteration for Early Fistula Failure: A Myth or Reality?Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease.  22:438-445. 2015
    2015 Influence of drugs on arteriovenous vascular access dysfunction 2015
    2015 New Developments in Our Understanding of Neointimal HyperplasiaAdvances in Chronic Kidney Disease.  22:431-437. 2015
    2014 Proliferation patterns in a pig model of AV fistula stenosis: Can we translate biology into novel therapies?Seminars in Dialysis.  27:626-632. 2014
    2014 Elderly patients with CKD - Dilemmas in dialysis therapy and vascular accessNature Reviews Nephrology.  10:116-122. 2014
    2014 Comparative analysis of cellular phenotypes within the neointima from vein segments collected prior to vascular access surgery and stenotic arteriovenous dialysis accessesSeminars in Dialysis.  27:303-309. 2014
    2014 Important topics and issues in vascular biology 2014
    2014 Natural history of venous morphologic changes in dialysis access stenosis 2014
    2014 Pathogenetic role for early focal macrophage infiltration in a pig model of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) stenosis 2014
    2014 Vascular access calcification and arteriovenous fistula maturation 2014
    2013 Novel paradigms for dialysis vascular access: Downstream vascular biology-is there a final common pathway?Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.  8:2194-2201. 2013
    2013 Arteriovenous Fistula Failure: Is There a Role for Epigenetic Regulation?Seminars in Nephrology.  33:400-406. 2013
    2013 Understanding surgical preference and practice in hemodialysis vascular access creationSeminars in Dialysis.  26:520-526. 2013
    2013 Education in vascular accessSeminars in Dialysis.  26:148-153. 2013
    2013 Improved Cumulative Survival in Fistulas Requiring Surgical Interventions to Promote Fistula Maturation Compared with Endovascular InterventionsSeminars in Dialysis.  26:85-89. 2013
    2013 Predicting dialysis vascular access blood flow and diameter: Too much, too little, or just rightKidney International.  84:1076-1078. 2013
    2012 Of veins, valves, and vascular access!Kidney International.  82:1236-1237. 2012
    2012 Balloon-Assisted Maturation (BAM) of the Arteriovenous Fistula: The Good, the Bad, and the UglySeminars in Nephrology.  32:558-563. 2012
    2012 Optimal Hemodialysis Vascular Access in the Elderly PatientSeminars in Dialysis.  25:640-648. 2012
    2012 Minimizing hemodialysis catheter dysfunction: An ounce of preventionInternational Journal of Nephrology.  2012. 2012
    2012 Back to the future: How biology and technology could change the role of ptfe grafts in vascular access managementSeminars in Dialysis.  25:495-504. 2012
    2012 Preexisting venous calcification prior to dialysis vascular access surgerySeminars in Dialysis.  25:592-595. 2012
    2012 Genetic causation of neointimal hyperplasia in hemodialysis vascular access dysfunctionSeminars in Dialysis.  25:65-73. 2012
    2011 Standardized Definitions for Hemodialysis Vascular AccessSeminars in Dialysis.  24:515-524. 2011
    2011 Severe venous neointimal hyperplasia prior to dialysis access surgeryNephrology Dialysis Transplantation.  26:2264-2270. 2011
    2011 Decreased cumulative access survival in arteriovenous fistulas requiring interventions to promote maturationClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.  6:575-581. 2011
    2011 Improving incident fistula rates: A process of care issueAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases.  57:814-817. 2011
    2010 "Venopathy" at work: Recasting neointimal hyperplasia in a new light 2010
    2010 Who should be referred for a fistula? A survey of nephrologistsNephrology Dialysis Transplantation.  25:2644-2651. 2010
    2009 Advances and New Frontiers in the Pathophysiology of Venous Neointimal Hyperplasia and Dialysis Access StenosisAdvances in Chronic Kidney Disease.  16:329-338. 2009
    2009 Combining novel technologies with improved logistics to reduce hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction 2009
    2007 Vascular stenosis: Biology and interventionsCurrent Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension.  16:516-522. 2007
    2007 Comparison of survival of upper arm arteriovenous fistulas and grafts after failed forearm fistulaJournal of the American Society of Nephrology.  18:1936-1941. 2007
    2006 In ReplyAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases.  48:181-182. 2006
    2006 Needle Infiltration of Arteriovenous Fistulae in Hemodialysis: Risk Factors and ConsequencesAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases.  47:1020-1026. 2006
    2005 Tunneled catheters in hemodialysis patients: Reasons and subsequent outcomesAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases.  46:501-508. 2005
    2004 Associations with predialysis vascular access managementAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases.  43:1008-1013. 2004


    Year Title Altmetric
    2016 Vascular access in hemodialysis.  71-91. 2016
    2012 What the general nephrologist needs to know about neointimal hyperplasia.  363-384. 2012

    Research Overview

  • Hemodialysis Vascular Access
  • Education And Training

  • UAB Hospital, Internship
  • UAB Hospital, Residency
  • UAB Hospital, Postdoctoral Fellowship
  • Doctor of Medicine, Louisiana State University System : Baton Rouge 2001
  • Full Name

  • Timmy Lee