In this study, we present the associations of fine particle nitrate, sulfate, and four organic carbon fractions with ambient temperature in urban and background monitoring sites in the United States for the 2011–2012 period. Nitrate concentrations increased for decreasing temperatures, while sulfate levels increased for temperatures higher than 14 °C. The profiles of organic carbon fractions for different temperatures were comparable to that observed for elemental carbon, a thermally stable and non-reactive component emitted from combustion-related sources. The trends for all parameters were comparable for the nine regions and independent to emission estimates of fine particles and their precursors. These patterns demonstrated that ambient temperature may manipulate fine particulate composition. These differences may be augmented by rising temperatures due to changing climate. Considering the causal associations between particulate pollution and pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, changes in the composition of particulate pollution may imply adjustments on the human health impacts.