Palmerolides D-G are new bioactive macrolides isolated from the Antarctic tunicate Synoicum adareanum and are related to the melanoma-selective cytotoxin palmerolide A. Most of these palmerolides are potent V-ATPase inhibitors and have sub-micromolar activity against melanoma. Though palmerolide A remains the most potent of this series of natural products against mammalian V-ATPase, recent data suggests that palmerolide D is the most potent against melanoma. A comparison of the bioactivity data obtained for these natural product palmerolides has provided insight into the substructures necessary to retain V-ATPase inhibition and cytotoxic activity. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.