Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (autoSCT) is an effective treatment for patients with various hematologic malignancies. Despite the significant improvement in the overall outcome, disease progression after transplantation remains the major cause of treatment failure. With longer follow-up, therapy-related myelodysplasia/acute myelogenous leukemia is becoming an important cause of treatment failure. The prognosis for these 2 groups of patients is very poor. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is a potential curative treatment for these patients. However, the outcome with conventional myeloablative alloSCT after failed autoSCT is typically poor because of high transplant-related mortality. In an attempt to reduce the treatment-related toxicity, we studied a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen followed by alloSCT for patients with progressive disease or therapy-related myelodysplasia/acute myelogenous leukemia after autoSCT. This report describes the outcomes of 28 patients with hematologic malignancies who received a reduced-intensity alloSCT after having treatment failure with a conventional autoSCT. Fourteen patients received a hematopoietic stem cell transplant from a related donor and 14 from an unrelated donor. The conditioning regimen consisted of low-dose (2 Gy) total body irradiation with or without fludarabine in 4 patients and the combination of melphalan (140 mg/m(2)) and fludarabine in 24. Cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil were used for posttransplantation immunosuppressive therapy, as well as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, in all patients. All patients engrafted and had >90% donor chimerism on day 100 after SCT. Currently, 13 patients (46%) are alive and disease free, 7 patients (25%) developed disease progression after alloSCT, and 8 (32%) died of nonrelapse causes. Day 100 mortality and nonrelapse mortality were 25% and 21%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 24 months for surviving patients, the 2-year probabilities of overall survival, event-free survival, and relapse rates were 56.5%, 41%, and 41.9%, respectively. Six patients (21%) developed grade III to IV acute GVHD. Among 21 evaluable patients, 15 (67%) developed chronic GVHD. We conclude that (1) reduced-intensity alloSCT is feasible and has an acceptable toxicity profile in patients who have previously received autoSCT and that (2) although follow-up was short, a durable remission may be achieved in some patients who would otherwise be expected to have a poor outcome.