Here, we evaluate the cytokine coexpression profiles of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific CD4 T cells for the expression of the cytokines gamma interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin-2, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. In controllers, CD4 T cells producing three or two cytokines (triple producers and double producers, respectively) represented >50% of the total response. In contrast, in noncontrollers ∼75% of responding cells produced only one cytokine (single producers), mostly IFN-γ. Cells producing three cytokines were functionally superior to those producing single cytokines and showed an inverse correlation (P < 0.001) with viral load. These results demonstrate a strong association between the maintenance of highly functional CD4 T cells producing three cytokines and control of HIV-1. Copyright © 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.