Metastatic involvement of the skeleton is a frequent consequence of advanced prostate cancer. These skeletal metastases cause a number of debilitating complications and are refractory to current treatments. New therapeutic options are being explored, including conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds). CRAds are engineered to selectively replicate in and destroy tumor cells and can be 'armed' with exogenous transgenes for enhanced potency. We hypothesized that a CRAd armed with osteoprotegerin (OPG), an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis, would inhibit the progression of prostate cancer bone metastases by directly lysing tumor cells and by reducing osteoclast activity. Although prostate cancer bone metastases are predominantly osteoblastic in nature, increased osteoclast activity is critical for the growth of these lesions. Ad5-Δ24-sOPG-Fc-RGD is a CRAd that carries a fusion of the ligand-binding domains of OPG and the Fc region of human IgG1 in place of the viral E3B genes. To circumvent low tumor cell expression of the native adenoviral receptor, an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide insertion within the viral fiber knob allows infection of cells expressing α v integrins. A 24-base pair deletion (Δ24) within viral E1A limits replication to cells with aberrant retinoblastoma cell cycle regulator/tumor suppressor expression. We have confirmed that Ad5-Δ24-sOPG-Fc-RGD replicates within and destroys prostate cancer cells and, in both murine and human coculture models, that infection of prostate cancer cells inhibits osteoclastogenesis in vitro. In a murine model, progression of advanced prostate cancer bone metastases was inhibited by treatment with Ad5-Δ24-sOPG-Fc- RGD but not by an unarmed control CRAd. © 2013 USCAP, Inc All rights reserved.