Chromosome aberrations have a major role in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) risk assignment. The Children's Cancer Group (CCG) and the Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) independently assessed the significance of trisomy for chromosomes 4, 10, and 17 in National Cancer Institute (NCI) Standard- and High-Risk ALL. Data from 1582 (CCG) and 3902 (POG) patients were analyzed. Eight-year event-free survivals (EFS) of 91% (CCG) and 89% (POG) (P<0.001) were achieved in patients assigned to NCI Standard Risk whose leukemic cells had simultaneous trisomies 4, 10, and 17. Both groups showed the degree of favorable prognostic importance increased with the actual number of favorable trisomies. POG analyses also demonstrated hyperdiploidy (≥53 chromosomes) was less of an independently significant prognostic factor in the absence of these key trisomies. This finding supported conclusions from previous CCG and POG studies that specific trisomies are more important than chromosome number in predicting outcome in pediatric B-precursor ALL. In NCI Higher Risk patients, the number of favorable trisomies was not prognostically significant, but showed the same trend. Moreover, specific trisomies 4, 10, and 17 remain associated with favorable prognosis in Standard-Risk B-precursor ALL, even in the context of very different treatment approaches between the groups. © 2005 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved.