Depression, socioeconomics status, age, and marital status in black women: A national study

Academic Article


  • This study examined the relationship between an array of socioeconomic status (SES) indicators and depression among Black women; determined which SES indicator was most strongly associated with depression; and examined whether the relationship between SES and depression was the same across age and marital status. A sample of 1,407 Black women recruited through the National Black Women's Health Project completed a survey on psychological well-being. Independent variables included income, education, median income within zip codes, marital status, and age. The dependent variable was depression as measured by the CES-D. The average CES-D score among participants was 12.67 (SD=10.54), and 31.9% screened positive for depression. An inverse relationship was found between income and education and depression. The higher the yearly household income and education level the lower the scores on the scores on the CES-D. Income was the SES indicator most strongly associated with depression. Younger women had higher scores on the CES-D. Never-married women exhibited significantly higher levels of depression compared to women who were married or living together with an intimate partner. There were no significant interactions between SES indicators, age, and marital status. These findings suggest that income, education level, marital status, and age may be important demographic variables to consider when designing interventions to address depression among Black women.
  • Published In

    Author List

  • Scarinci IC; Beech BM; Naumann W; Kovach KW; Pugh L; Fapohunda B
  • Start Page

  • 421
  • End Page

  • 428
  • Volume

  • 12
  • Issue

  • 3