Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of death among women in the United States, in part due to a very high prevalence of dyslipidemia. Clinical trials have shown that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering therapy can decrease angiographic progression of coronary disease and decrease clinical events among women and men. Although hormone replacement therapy has beneficial effects on the lipoprotein profile, its role in cardiovascular disease prevention remains unclear. The recently released Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel provides detailed guidelines for the management of dyslipidemia in women, with a focus on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and intensity guided by risk of cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2001 by Current Science Inc..