We recently evaluated a mentally retarded 48 year old man found to have a cytogenetic deletion of chromosome 10 [46,XY,del(10) (q25.1q25.3)]. Of interest, he shares many clinical findings with those described in Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS). These include severe mental retardation, short stature and a coarse facial appearance with widely spaced eyes, and patulous lips. He also had an extra transverse hypothenar crease, a finding that is seen in CLS. Furthermore, he has characteristic radiographic hand findings described in 95% of patients with CLS. The CLS gene, located at Xp22.2, has recently been identified, and mutations in the Rsk-2 gene have been identified in several CLS patients. Rsk2 is part of a gene family implicated in cell cycle regulation through the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade. None of the currently recognized components of this pathway maps to the region deleted in our patient, nor are we able to identify any likely candidate genes in the deleted region, although several G protein coupled receptors have been cloned from the region. This patient's findings have some overlap with those seen in CLS, suggesting that a gene involved in MAP kinase signaling may be present in the deleted region of chromosome 10q25.1-25.3. Patients with a phenotype consistent with CLS, but lacking a family history suggestive of an X-linked disorder, should be evaluated with chromosome analysis paying particular attention to the region 10q25. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.