The objective of this study was to cross-calibrate measurements of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with chemical analysis of carcasses of pigs in the pediatric range of body weight. Eighteen pigs (25.5 ± 7.0 kg; 9.9-32.8% body fat) were scanned in duplicate by using DXA with a Lunar DPX-L densitometer in the pediatric medium and adult fast- detail scan modes. Pigs were then killed and their carcasses analyzed completely. Carcass lean and fat contents were highly correlated with DXA measurements in both scan modes (Pearson r values > 0.98). For lean mass, the relation between carcass content and DXA measures was not significantly different from the line of identity in the adult mode, but was in the pediatric mode. For fat mass, the relations between carcass content and DXA measures were significantly different from the line of identity in both the adult and pediatric modes. In duplicate scans, the reliability of DXA measures of lean mass and fat mass was excellent in both scan modes. Because neither the adult nor the pediatric scan mode provided accurate measures of fat and lean mass, we derived specific correction factors to improve the measurement of total fat and lean compartments, thereby calibrating the Lunar DPX-L to the laboratory standard of carcass analysis in pigs.