Tumors are complex collections of heterogeneous cells with recruited vasculature, inflammatory cells, and stromal elements. Neoplastic cells frequently display a hierarchy in differentiation status. Recent studies suggest that brain tumors have a limited population of neoplastic cells called cancer stem cells with the capacity for sustained self-renewal and tumor propagation. Brain tumor stem cells contribute to therapeutic resistance and tumor angiogenesis. In this minireview, we summarize recent data regarding critical signaling pathways involved in brain tumor stem cell biology and discuss how targeting these molecules may contribute to the development of novel anti-glioma therapies. © 2009 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.