The number of older adults with HIV continues to grow primarily because of the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Despite this welcomed benefit from pharmaceutical advances, aging with this disease presents an entirely new set of problems. The combination of aging and HIV can create a variety of stressors that may weaken one's resolve and further debilitate already compromised cognitive systems, which may increase rates of depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide. Studies indicate that older adults with HIV experience higher levels of depression and suicidal ideation than other older adults do or than younger adults with HIV do. Cognitive declines associated with both HIV and aging may provide insight into this phenomenon. A model of cognitive decline and suicidal ideation in adults aging with HIV is provided. Implications for nursing practice and research are discussed. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Neuroscience Nurses.