Proteomic analysis has proved to be an important tool for understanding the complex nature of genetic disorders, such as cystic fibrosis (CF), by defining the cellular protein environment (proteome) associated with wild-type and mutant proteins. Proteomic screens identified the proteome of CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and provided fundamental information to studies designed for understanding the crucial components of physiological CFTR function. Simultaneously, high-throughput screens for small-molecular correctors of CFTR mutants provided promising candidates for therapy. The majority of CF cases are caused by nucleotide deletions (F508 CFTR; >75%), resulting in CFTR misfolding, or insertion of premature termination codons (∼10%), leading to unstable mRNA and reduced levels of truncated dysfunctional CFTR. In this article, we review recent results of proteomic screens, developments in identifying correctors for the most frequent CFTR mutants, and comment on how integration of the knowledge gained from these studies may aid in finding a cure for CF and a number of other genetic disorders. © 2010 Expert Reviews Ltd.