An HIV-1 vaccine able to induce broad CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses may provide long-term control of viral replication. In this study we directly assess the relative benefit of immunization with vaccines expressing three structural Ags (Gag, Pol, and Env), three early regulatory proteins (Rev, Tat, and Nef), or a complex vaccine expressing all six Ags. The simultaneous administration of all six Ags during vaccination resulted in Ag competition manifested by a relative reduction of CD8+ T cell and lymphoproliferative responses to individual Ags. Despite the Ag competition, vaccination with all six Ags resulted in a delay in the onset and a decrease in the extent of acute viremia after mucosal challenge exposure to highly pathogenic SIVmac251. Reduced levels of acute viremia correlated with lower post-set point viremia and long-term control of infection. In immunized animals, virus-specific CD4+ T cell and lymphoproliferative responses were preserved during acute viremia, and the maintenance of these responses predicted the long-term virological outcome. Taken together, these results suggest that the breadth of the immune response is probably more important than high frequency responses to a limited number of epitopes. These data provide the first clear evidence of the importance of nonstructural HIV Ags as components of an HIV-1 vaccine. Copyright © 2005 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.