The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of intestinal tract immunization in the induction of specific antibodies in human female genital tract secretions. Live attenuated typhoid vaccine Ty 21a was administered to three groups of healthy female volunteers, who were not using hormonal contraceptives. Group 1 included 15 women vaccinated orally. Group 2 included seven of the same women, who were vaccinated rectally 6 months later. Group 3 included 11 volunteers, who were vaccinated rectally. Salmonella-specific antibodies of IgG and IgA were measured in vaginal lavage and cervical mucus after oral or rectal primary vaccination. Salmonella-specific antibodies measured 1 month after rectal booster vaccination demonstrated significant increases in vaginal fluids and cervical mucus and were dominated by IgA. These results indicate that specific antibodies in the human female genital tract induced by primary vaccination can be enhanced by subsequent rectal administration of vaccines. Copyright © 2001 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.