In an attempt to determine the mechanism of human tumorigenesis, we have searched for oncogenes and recently reported the molecular cloning of a potent oncogene (hPTTG) from human testis. hPTTG mRNA is expressed at high levels in various human tumors and tumor cell lines. Overexpression of hPTTG in the mouse fibroblast cell line (NIH 3T3) results in an increase in cell proliferation, induces cellular transformation in vitro, and promotes tumor formation in nude mice. The hPTTG gene isolated from the human genomic library consists of five exons and four introns and spans over 10 kb. In the studies reported here, we further investigated the possibility of the presence of additional genes homologous to hPTTG in the human genome, which was first indicated by Southern blot analysis of the human genomic DNA and chromosomal mapping of the hPTTG gene using DNA from human hamster hybrid cell lines in PCR. Sequencing and restriction map analysis of the additional genomic clones identified two intronless genes homologous to hPTTG. This finding was confirmed by the chromosomal location of the second gene to chromosome 4p15.1 and the third gene to chromosome 8q13.1. Based on the similarity in sequences, we proposed that hPTTG be renamed hPTTG1 and the new genes be named hPTTG2 and hPTTG3. hPPTG2 was found to be 91% identical and hPPTG3 89% identical with hPPTG1 at the amino acid level. Northern blot and reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR) analyses of the mRNA from various human tissues revealed diVerential expression of the hPTTG2 and hPTTG3 genes in normal and tumor tissues, suggesting that these genes may be associated with tumorigenesis. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All right reserved.