CD8 T-cell responses are critical for protection against intracellular pathogens and tumors. The induction and properties of these responses are governed by a series of integrated processes that rely heavily on cell-cell interactions. Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 functions to enhance the strength of antigenic stimulation, extend the duration of contact with antigen-presenting cells, and augment cytokine signals, which are all factors that influence peripheral CD8 T-cell differentiation. Although previous studies suggest that ICAM-1 is essential for establishing memory T-cell populations following peptide immunization, the roles of ICAM-1 in antiviral cellular immunity are less well understood. Here we show that, following a prototypic acute viral infection, the formation and maintenance of memory-phenotype CD127hi, KLRG-1lo CD8 T cells does not require ICAM-1. Nevertheless, ICAM-1 expression on nonlymphocytes dictates the phenotypic and functional attributes of the antiviral CD8 T-cell populations that develop and promotes the gradual attrition of residual effector-like CD127lo, KLRG-1hi CD8 T cells during the memory phase of the response. Although memory T cells do emerge and are maintained if ICAM-1 expression is abolished, the secondary proliferative capacity of these T cells is severely curtailed. Collectively, these studies reveal potential dual roles for ICAM-1 in both promoting the decay of effector responses and programming the sensitivity of memory CD8 T cells to secondary stimuli.