Cells react to viral infection by exhibiting IFN-based innate immune responses and integrated stress responses, but little is known about the interrelationships between the two. In this study, we report a linkage between these two host-protective cellular mechanisms. We found that IFN regulatory factor (IRF)7, the master regulator of type I IFN gene expression, interacts with activating transcription factor (ATF)4, a key component of the integrated stress responses whose translation is induced by viral infection and various stresses. We have demonstrated that IRF7 upregulates ATF4 activity and expression, whereas ATF4 in return inhibits IRF7 activation, suggesting a cross-regulation between the IFN response and the cellular integrated stress response that controls host innate immune defense against viral infection. Copyright © 2011 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.