Human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 induces prolonged G2 following S phase reentry in differentiated human keratinocytes

Academic Article


  • The productive program of human papillomaviruses occurs in differentiated squamous keratinocytes. We have previously shown that HPV-18 DNA amplification initiatesin spinous cells in organotypic cultures of primary human keratinocytes during prolonged G2 phase, as signified by abundant cytoplasmic cyclin B1 (Wang, H. K., Duffy, A. A., Broker, T. R., and Chow, L. T. (2009) Genes Dev. 23, 181-194). In this study, we demonstrated that the E7 protein, which induces S phase reentry in suprabasal cells by destabilizing the p130 pocket protein (Genovese, N. J., Banerjee, N. S., Broker, T. R., and Chow, L. T. (2008) J. Virol. 82, 4862-4873), also elicited extensive G2 responses. Western blots and indirect immunofluorescence assays were used to probe for host proteins known to control G2/M progression. E7 expression induced cytoplasmic accumulation of cyclin B1 and cdc2 in the suprabasal cells. The elevated cdc2 had inactivating phosphorylation on Thr 14 or Tyr15, and possibly both, due to an increase in the responsible Wee1 and Myt1 kinases. In cells that harbored cytoplasmic cyclin B1 or cdc2, there was also an accumulation of the phosphatase-inactive cdc25C phosphorylated on Ser216, unable to activate cdc2. Moreover, E7 expression induced elevated expression of phosphorylated ATM (Ser 1981) and the downstream phosphorylated Chk1, Chk2, and JNKs, kinases known to inactivate cdc25C. Similar results were observed in primary human keratinocyte raft cultures in which the productive program of HPV-18 took place. Collectively, this study has revealed the mechanisms by which E7 induces prolonged G2 phase in the differentiated cells following S phase induction. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
  • Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Banerjee NS; Wang HK; Broker TR; Chow LT
  • Start Page

  • 15473
  • End Page

  • 15482
  • Volume

  • 286
  • Issue

  • 17