Practical use of investigations in patients with hematuria

Academic Article


  • Objective: The majority of patients with microscopic hematuria undergo a complete evaluation resulting in negative findings. The outcome of patients with hematuria was analyzed in an effort to optimize the use of investigations. Patients and Methods: The records for 404 patients who presented with hematuria were reviewed. Data were collected on demographics, type of hematuria, investigations, and final diagnosis. Results: The hematuria was microscopic in 140 patients (35%) and gross in 264 patients (65%). In gross hematuria patients, 10% had urinary tract tumors and 12% had calculi. All patients with genitourinary tumors and 87% of patients with calculi had gross hematuria and/or ≥5 RBCs/HPF (red blood cells per high-power microscopic field) on urinalysis. The sensitivity and specificity were 94% and 6% for the dipstick urine test, 37% and 71% for urine cytology, 92% and 93% for computed tomography (CT), 50% and 95% for ultrasound scans, and 38% and 90% for intravenous pyelography, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that age and number of RBCs/HPF in the urinalyses were the only significant factors predicting genitourinary cancer. In patients ≤40 years old, there was one patient with malignancy and seven patients with stones. In older patients, there were 31 patients with malignancy and 32 patients with stones. Conclusions: Patients with <5 RBCs/HPF on three urinalyses are unlikely to have significant pathology and could possibly be followed up conservatively. Patients ≤40 years of age should have a noncontrast CT or ultrasound study if they present with microscopic hematuria, and a cystoscopy should be added if gross hematuria exists. In older patients, a pre- and postcontrast CT and a cystoscopy should be performed. © 2008 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
  • Authors

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    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • El-Galley R; Abo-Kamil R; Burns JR; Phillips J; Kolettis PN
  • Start Page

  • 51
  • End Page

  • 55
  • Volume

  • 22
  • Issue

  • 1