Background: The body of knowledge regarding rhinosinusitis (RS) continues to expand, with rapid growth in number of publications, yet substantial variability in the quality of those presentations. In an effort to both consolidate and critically appraise this information, rhinologic experts from around the world have produced the International Consensus Statement on Allergy and Rhinology: Rhinosinusitis (ICAR:RS). Methods: Evidence-based reviews with recommendations (EBRRs) were developed for scores of topics, using previously reported methodology. Where existing evidence was insufficient for an EBRR, an evidence-based review (EBR) was produced. The sections were then synthesized and the entire manuscript was then reviewed by all authors for consensus. Results: The resulting ICAR:RS document addresses multiple topics in RS, including acute RS (ARS), chronic RS (CRS) with and without nasal polyps (CRSwNP and CRSsNP), recurrent acute RS (RARS), acute exacerbation of CRS (AECRS), and pediatric RS. Conclusion: As a critical review of the RS literature, ICAR:RS provides a thorough review of pathophysiology and evidence-based recommendations for medical and surgical treatment. It also demonstrates the significant gaps in our understanding of the pathophysiology and optimal management of RS. Too often the foundation upon which these recommendations are based is comprised of lower-level evidence. It is our hope that this summary of the evidence in RS will point out where additional research efforts may be directed.