Continuous resuscitation after hemorrhage and acute fluid replacement improves cardiovascular responses

Academic Article


  • Background. Although acute fluid replacement after trauma and severe hemorrhage remains the cornerstone in the management of trauma victims, it remains unknown whether continuous resuscitation after trauma-hemorrhage and acute fluid replacement produces salutary effects on cardiovascular function and reduces proinflammatory cytokine release. Methods. Adult male rats underwent laparotomy (ie, soft tissue trauma) and were bled to and maintained at a mean arterial pressure of 40 mm Hg until 40 % of the shed blood volume was returned in the form of Ringer's lactate (RL). The animals were then resuscitated with 4 times the volume of shed blood with RL for 60 minutes, followed by continuous resuscitation with RL at 5 mL/h/kg for 48 hours after the acute fluid replacement. At 48 hours after hemorrhage, mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, and left ventricular contractility parameters, such as the maximal rates of ventricular pressure increase (+dP/dtmax) and decrease (-dP/dtmax), were determined. Microvascular blood flow in the intestine and kidney was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry. In addition, plasma levels of TNF-α were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. The mean arterial pressure and cardiac output were decreased by 34% and 18%, respectively, at 48 hours after hemorrhage and acute resuscitation. Continuous resuscitation, however, markedly improved these parameters. Similarly, +dP/dtmax and -dP/dtmax decreased significantly after hemorrhage and acute fluid replacement but was restored to sham values after continuous resuscitation. Microvascular blood flow in the gut and kidneys was decreased after hemorrhage and acute resuscitation by 34% and 35%, respectively. However, intestinal and renal perfusion was maintained at the sham levels at 48 hours after continuous resuscitation. In addition, the upregulated TNF-α after acute resuscitation alone was reduced after continuous resuscitation. Conclusions. Continuous resuscitation after acute fluid replacement appears to be a useful approach for restoring and maintaining cardiovascular function and organ perfusion after trauma and severe hemorrhage.
  • Published In

  • Surgery  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Wang P; Ba ZF; Koo DJ; Cioffi WG; Bland KI; Chaudry IH
  • Start Page

  • 559
  • End Page

  • 566
  • Volume

  • 129
  • Issue

  • 5