Background Although considerable evidence describes optimal prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE), a gap still exists in the implementation of these measures. With increasing recognition from quality accreditation organizations, VTE prevention recently has become a mandated health care quality measure. A broad effort to implement quality care measures in the health care system is under way, but the economic implications of this effort have yet to be realized. This article reviews the current status and future trends of quality care measures for VTE prevention and treatment and the potential economic implications of wider implementation of evidence-based guidelines. Methods A MEDLINE literature search was performed to identify original studies. The National Guidelines Clearinghouse was searched to identify appropriate guidelines. Results •••. Conclusions Increased public awareness about risk factors and symptoms is needed, and patients must feel empowered to speak with health care providers about VTE. Health care practitioners require clearly understood and routinely applied evidence-based practices for the screening, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Further research is required to determine the most efficient translation of these practices from bench to bedside.