Few data exist regarding the long-term sequelae of acute renal failure (ARF), and these studies are limited to a few renal conditions. We aim to assess the 3-5-year survival and incidence of renal injury in children who previously developed ARF of varying causes. We queried parents, physicians, and hospital/state vital statistics records to find patient survival in 174 children who previously had ARF and survived to hospital discharge. We assessed the following in 29 children for residual renal injury: (a) microalbuminuria, (b) glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by Schwartz formula, (c) hypertension, and (d) hematuria. The 3-5-year survival of children with ARF who survived to hospital discharge was 139/174 (79.9%). Most deaths (24/35 (68.5%)) occurred within 12 months after initial hospitalization. Combining those who died during initial hospitalization and in subsequent 3-5 years, the overall survival rate was 139/245 (56.8%). In all, 16 children progressed to end-stage renal disease; thus, renal survival was 127/173 (91%). Those with primary renal/urologic conditions had lower renal survival than others (24/35 (68.6%) vs 134/139 (96.4%); P < 0.0001). Among the 29 patients assessed for long-term sequelae at 3-5 years, 17/29 (59%) subjects had at least one sign of renal injury; microalbuminuria (n = 9), hyperfiltration (n = 9), decreased GFR (n = 4), and hypertension (n = 6). A pediatric nephrologist was involved in care of only 6/17 (35%) with chronic renal injury. Patients have high risks of ongoing residual renal injury and death after ARF; therefore, periodic evaluation after the initial insult is necessary. © 2006 International Society of Nephrology.