Hypoxic preconditioning involves system Xc - regulation in mouse neural stem cells

Academic Article


  • In animals, hypoxic preconditioning has been used as a form of neuroprotection. The exact mechanism involved in neuroprotective hypoxic preconditioning has not been described, yet could be valuable for possible neuroprotective strategies. The overexpression of the cystine-glutamate exchanger, system Xc -, has been demonstrated as being neuroprotective (Shih, Erb et al. 2006). Here, using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate that C57BL/6 mice exposed to hypoxia showed an increase in system Xc - expression, with the highest level of intensity in the hippocampus. Western Blot analysis also showed an almost 2-fold increase in system Xc - protein in hypoxia-exposed versus control mice. The mRNA for the regulatory subunit of system Xc -, xCT, and the xCT/actin ratio were also increased under hypoxic conditions. Experiments using hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) siRNA showed a statistically significant decrease in HIF-1α and system Xc - expression. Under hypoxic conditions, system Xc - activity, as determined by cystine uptake, increased 2-fold. Importantly, hypoxic preconditioning was attenuated in neural stem cells by pharmacological inhibition of system Xc - activity with S4-carboxyphenylglycine. These data provide the first evidence of hypoxic regulation of the cystine glutamate exchanger system Xc -. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
  • Authors

    Published In

  • Stem Cell Research  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Sims B; Clarke M; Francillion L; Kindred E; Hopkins ES; Sontheimer H
  • Start Page

  • 285
  • End Page

  • 291
  • Volume

  • 8
  • Issue

  • 2