Weight gain following bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) in Parkinson disease (PD) has been characterized previously, but little is known about changes in weight following unilateral STN DBS. Weight gain of approximately 10 kg at one year after bilateral STN DBS for PD has been noted in previous studies, and PD in the absence of DBS has been associated with weight loss. A case-control comparison evaluated the change in weight following unilateral STN DBS in PD. In 39 patients who underwent unilateral STN DBS for PD, we measured the weight change over 1 year versus both preoperative weight change and the weight change in 40 age- and disease severity-matched PD controls without DBS. Regression analyses incorporating age, gender, baseline weight in case or control were conducted to assess weight changes. At 12 months following surgery, the mean weight of unilateral STN DBS patients increased by 4.3 ± 7.2 kg versus the preoperative baseline weight (p < 0.001) and this increase was 4.8 kg compared with the controls (p = 0.015). Over a 1 year time interval, weight gain occurred in 41% of the preoperative unilateral STN DBS patients and 45% of the PD controls, while 85% of the unilateral STN DBS patients had gained weight at 12 months after surgery (p < 0.0001, respectively, chi square test). We conclude that unilateral STN DBS in PD is associated with weight gain, which offsets weight loss associated with advanced PD. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.