In several human T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases and animal models of such illnesses, T-cell receptors (TCR) specific for antigens that initiate or perpetuate the disease share a limited number of variable region determinants. Vaccinations with peptides derived from over-represented TCRs are effective treatment for some of these disorders. RA is a chronic inflammatory disease in which there is prominent T-cell infiltration in the synovial lining layer. TCR Vβ3, Vβ14, and Vβ17 have been found to be over-represented among IL-2 receptor-positive T-cells from patients with RA. A phase II clinical trial in RA, using a combination of three peptides derived from Vβ3, Vβ14, and Vβ17, has yielded promising results. Larger clinical efficacy and safety studies must be performed to determine if TCR peptide vaccination will become a viable treatment alternative for patients with RA.