Alcoholism and tuberculosis often coexist, and patients with this combination have the most frequent failures of therapy. Several intriguing alternatives to standard outpatient chemotherapy are now available. The brief MAST interview (a shortened version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test) has been demonstrated to be effective in identifying alcoholism in public health clinics for tuberculosis in New Orleans and Birmingham, Ala., with scores indicating populations of alcoholic patients of 25% and 28%, respectively. The test could be administered without interrupting the routine of the clinic. The authors believe that the problem of inadequate therapy in the alcoholic patient with tuberculosis is significant and widespread and is not being handled well in most places. Identification of the potential problem patients at first contact will be most helpful in choosing candidates for specialized forms of therapy, including short-term and supervised treatment, begun before failure of therapy ensues.