Patient characteristics, antifungal prophylaxis, and other factors appear to have contributed to a change in the spectrum of invasive fungal pathogens. Infections with Candida glabrata, Aspergillus terreus, and non-Aspergillus moulds appear to be on the rise, at least among certain populations. These species are resistant or less susceptible to some commonly used antifungal agents. Non-Aspergillus moulds are particularly lethal. This article reviews the spectrum of invasive mycoses and risk factors for infection with these pathogens. © 2006 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.