Human protothecal infection is uncommon and could be localized or systemic disease. Disseminated Prototheca algaemia tends to occur in immunocompromised patients (solid organ transplants, hematological malignancies) with high mortality. Diagnosis could be missed or delayed due to unusual clinical presentation and/or under-recognition of characteristic microscopic features of Prototheca species. Combined approach that includes removal of source of infection and intravenous amphotericin B provides the best chance of cure. © 2012 International Society for Human and Animal Mycology.