Traditionally, vaccines have been utilized to generate immune responses to a pathogen in a naive population. In the setting of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, a vaccine that, when administered to women already infected with CMV, could boost the mother's immunity to CMV would most likely be beneficial in diminishing in utero transmission of CMV. However, the ability to boost an immune response in a population of individuals seropositive for a pathogen of interest is not well studied. This study examines the ability of a recombinant CMV glycoprotein B vaccine with MF59 adjuvant to boost both antibody (neutralizing and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay end point dilution titer) and CD4+ T-cell responses in previously CMV-seropositive women by way of natural infection. These data suggest that this vaccine is capable of boosting immunity in a population of CMV-infected women and warrants additional evaluation to determine whether these boosted responses may prevent mother to child transmission of CMV. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.