The majority of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections in humans are asymptomatic and without clinical evidence of complications at the time of diagnosis. The natural history of chlamydial infection in humans, including the duration of infection and factors influencing resolution of infection, is not yet completely understood. This is in part attributable to the inherent challenges and ethical considerations in studying untreated chlamydia in humans. An improved understanding of the natural history of chlamydia in humans has implications for chlamydia screening and treatment recommendations. In April 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened an advisory group for the Chlamydia Immunology and Control Expert Advisory Meeting, in which studies related to chlamydia natural history, pathogenesis, and immunobiology were reviewed and gaps in our knowledge that would have implications for prevention and control of C. trachomatis infection were identified. This article summarizes the key questions posed and the evidence reviewed on the duration of untreated, uncomplicated genital chlamydial infection in humans and the factors associated with chlamydia resolution. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.