Our study prospectively examined the use of real-time antifungal susceptibility testing among 119 patients with candidemia at a large tertiary university medical center over a 1-year period. Susceptibility results to fluconazole were reported to physicians a mean of 5.1 days after the initial positive blood culture for Candida. Physicians believed that receiving antifungal susceptibility testing results was helpful and not infrequently altered therapy on the basis of results. Outcomes, including mortality and resolution of infection, among 20 (17%) patients with fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible dose-dependent isolates were relatively poor compared to those among patients with fluconazole-susceptible isolates, but probably reflect severity of illness. Routine susceptibility testing as an adjunct to the treatment of candidemia has significant potential and warrants further study. © 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.