Immunosuppression regimen and the risk of acute rejection in HIV-infected kidney transplant recipients

Academic Article


  • BACKGROUND: Kidney transplantation (KT) is the treatment for end-stage renal disease in appropriate HIV-positive individuals. However, acute rejection (AR) rates are over twice those of HIV-negative recipients. METHODS: To better understand optimal immunosuppression for HIV-positive KT recipients, we studied associations between immunosuppression regimen, AR at 1 year, and survival in 516 HIV-positive and 93,027 HIV-negative adult kidney-only recipients using Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data from 2003 to 2011. RESULTS: Consistent with previous reports, HIV-positive patients had twofold higher risk of AR (adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45-2.2; P<0.001) than their HIV-negative counterparts as well as a higher risk of graft loss (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.18-1.94; P=0.001), but these differences were not seen among patients receiving antithymocyte globulin (ATG) induction (aRR for AR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.41-3.35, P=0.77; adjusted hazard ratio for graft loss, 1.54; 95% CI, 0.73-3.25; P=0.26). Furthermore, HIV-positive patients receiving ATG induction had a 2.6-fold lower risk of AR (aRR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.18-0.87; P=0.02) than those receiving no antibody induction. Conversely, HIV-positive patients receiving sirolimus-based therapy had a 2.2-fold higher risk of AR (aRR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.20-3.86; P=0.01) than those receiving calcineurin inhibitor-based regimens. CONCLUSION: These findings support a role for ATG induction, and caution against the use of sirolimus-based maintenance therapy, in HIV-positive individuals undergoing KT. Copyright © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • Published In

  • Transplantation  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Locke JE; James NT; Mannon RB; Mehta SG; Pappas PG; Baddley JW; Desai NM; Montgomery RA; Segev DL
  • Start Page

  • 446
  • End Page

  • 450
  • Volume

  • 97
  • Issue

  • 4