A surprising number of Fc receptor (FcR) relatives have been recognized recently with the potential capacity to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses. The six human FcR homologs (FcRH1-6), which belong to a phylogenetically conserved gene family, have variable numbers of extracellular immunoglobulin domains of five different subtypes. FcRH immunoregulatory potential is implicated by the presence of consensus tyrosine-based activation or inhibition motifs in their cytoplasmic tails. All but one of these new receptors, FcRH6, are expressed on B cells at different stages in differentiation. Their ligands, function, and prospective roles as diagnostic B cell markers and therapeutic targets are topics of intense interest. © 2005 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmBH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.