To determine the accuracy of attenuation-corrected equilibrium radionuclide angiographic determinations of right ventricular volumes, we initially studied 14 postmortem human right ventricular casts by water displacement and biplane cineventriculography. Biplane cineventriculographic right ventricular cast volumes, calculated by a modification of Simpson's rule algorithm, correlated with right ventricular cast volumes measured by water displacement (r = .97, y = 8 + 0.88x, SEE = 6 ml). Moreover, the mean volumes obtained by both methods were no different (73 ± 28 vs 73 ± 25 ml). Subsequently, we studied 16 patients by both biplane cineventriculography and equilibrium radionuclide angiography. The uncorrected radionuclide right ventricular volumes were calculated by normalizing background corrected end-diastolic and end-systolic counts from hand-drawn regions of interest obtained by phase analysis for cardiac cycles processed, frame rate, and blood sample counts. Attenuation correction was performed by a simple geometric method. The attenuation-corrected radionuclide right ventricular end-diastolic volumes correlated with the cineventriculographic end-diastolic volumes (r = .91, y = 3 + 0.92x, SEE = 27 ml). Similarly, the attenuation-corrected radionuclide right ventricular end-systolic volumes correlated with the cineventriculographic end-systolic volumes (r = .93, y = -1 ± 0.91x, SEE = 16 ml). Also, the mean attenuation-corrected radionuclide end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were no different than the average cineventriculographic end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (160 ± 61 and 83 ± 44 vs 170 ± 61 and 86 ± 43 ml, respectively). Comparison of the uncorrected and attenuation-corrected radionuclide right ventricular volumes demonstrated narrower 95% confidence intervals for the attenuation-corrected right ventricular volume determinations over a wide range of cineventriculographic volumes. Thus we conclude that: (1) attenuation-corrected radionuclide right ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes compare closely with those obtained by a cast-validated biplane cineventriculographic method and (2) attenuation-corrected radionuclide right ventricular volumes correspond more closely to determinations of biplane cineventriculographic right ventricular volumes and are thus likely to be more accurate than uncorrected radionuclide right ventricular volumes.