Perceived Barriers and Facilitators of Farm-to-Consumer Retail Outlet Use Among Participants of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in Alabama

Academic Article


  • This research aimed to identify perceived barriers and facilitators of farm-to-consumer (FTC) retail outlet (eg, farmers’ markets, farm/roadside stands) usage among Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participants residing in Birmingham, Alabama. Additionally, associations between barriers and facilitators reported and daily fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake were examined. A sample of 312 lower income women (mean age = 27.6; 67.0% non-Hispanic black; 45.3% obese) who participate in the Birmingham WIC program were surveyed between October 2014 and January 2015. Fischer’s exact test was used to assess associations between barriers (eg, outlet location, price, transportation), facilitators (eg, produce quality, produce variety), and high F&V intake (ie, consuming ≥ 5 servings per day). Approximately 81 (26.1%) participants reported using an FTC outlet to purchase produce in 2014. Lack of awareness (39.3%), outlet location (32.8%), and lack of interest (28.4%) were the barriers most often reported. Produce quality (69.1%), produce variety (49.4%), and price (39.5%) were the facilitators most often reported. Barriers and facilitators mentioned were not associated with high F&V intake. Lack of awareness and lack of interest are key barriers to FTC outlet usage among Birmingham WIC recipients. Interventions aiming to promote use of FTC outlets should consider the perceived barriers and facilitators to usage.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Singleton CR; Baskin M; Levitan EB; Sen B; Affuso E; Affuso O
  • Start Page

  • 237
  • End Page

  • 250
  • Volume

  • 12
  • Issue

  • 2