The effect of a previous low birth weight birth (less than 2750 g) was examined using a series of regression analyses. Effects on birth weight were partitioned into those associated with preterm delivery (128 g) and term delivery (178 g). Among term births, a mean difference of 107 g was associated with a previous birth of less than 2750 g, even after controlling for other risk factors including smoking, drug and alcohol use, maternal race, size, and hypertension. The pattern of measurements seen after a previous birth of less than 2750 g included significantly smaller head, chest, abdomen, arm, and thigh circumferences, but an insignificant impact on skinfold thicknesses and no significant effect on length measurements. © 1992 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.