This study aims to examine if access to healthcare, measured through the availability of medical resources at the neighborhood level, influences colorectal cancer (CRC) stage, treatment and survival using the Surveillance Epidemiology and Ends Result (SEER) dataset (November 2012), linked with the 2004 Area Resource File. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the association between availability of healthcare resources and CRC outcomes among non-Hispanic Black (n = 9162) and non-Hispanic White patients (n = 97,264). CRC patients were identified using the SEER*Stat program, and individual socio-demographic, clinical, and county-level healthcare access variables were obtained for each patient. Among NH-W patients, residence in counties with lower number of oncology hospitals was associated with increased odds of late stage diagnosis (OR 1.09, 95 % CI 1.04–1.14), reduced odds of receiving surgery (OR 0.83, 95 % CI 0.74–0.92) and higher hazard rates (HR 1.09, 95 % CI 1.06–1.12). There were no significant associations among NH-B patients. Increased availability of healthcare resources improves CRC outcomes among NH-W patients. However, future studies are required to better understand healthcare utilization patterns in NH-B neighborhoods, and identify other important dimensions of healthcare access such as affordability, acceptability and accommodation.