Deep sequencing of RYR3 gene identifies rare and common variants associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in HIV-infected individuals

Academic Article


  • Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is a subclinical measure of atherosclerosis with mounting evidence that higher cIMT confers an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The ryanodine receptor 3 gene (RYR3) has previously been linked to increased cIMT; however, the causal variants have not yet been localized. Therefore, we sequenced 339 480 bp encompassing 104 exons and 2 kb flanking region of the RYR3 gene in 96 HIV-positive white men from the extremes of the distribution of common cIMT from the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Changes in HIV infection study (FRAM). We identified 2710 confirmed variants (2414 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 296 insertion/deletions (indels)), with a mean count of 736 SNPs (ranging from 528 to 1032) and 170 indels (ranging from 128 to 214) distributed in each individual. There were 39 variants in the exons and 15 of these were non-synonymous, of which with only 4 were common variants and the remaining 11 were rare variants, one was a novel SNP. We confirmed that the common variant rs2229116 was significantly associated with cIMT in this design (P<7.9 × 10 -9), and observed seven other significantly associated SNPs (P<10 -8). These variants including the private non-synonymous SNPs need to be followed up in a larger sample size and also tested with clinical atherosclerotic outcomes.
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    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Zhi D; Shendre A; Scherzer R; Irvin MR; Perry RT; Levy S; Arnett DK; Grunfeld C; Shrestha S
  • Start Page

  • 63
  • End Page

  • 67
  • Volume

  • 60
  • Issue

  • 2