Disparities in fetal death and first day death: The influence of risk factors in 2 time periods

Academic Article


  • Objectives: We examined how changes in risk factors over time influence fetal, first day, and combined fetal-first day mortality and subsequent racial/ethnic disparities. Methods: We selected deliveries to US resident non-Hispanic White and Black mothers from the linked live birth-infant death cohort and fetal deaths files (1995-1996; 2001-2002) and calculated changes over time of mortality rates, odds, and relative odds ratios (RORs) overall and among mothers with modifiable risk factors (smoking, diabetes, or hypertensive disorders). Results: Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for fetal mortality overall (AOR = 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.96, 1.01) and among Blacks (AOR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.93, 1.03) indicated no change over time. Among women with modifiable risk factors, the RORs indicated no change in disparities. The ROR was not significant for fetal mortality (ROR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.83, 1.01) among smokers, but there was evidence of some decline. There was evidence of increase in RORs in fetal death among mothers with diabetes and hypertensive disorders, but differences were not significant. Conclusions: Disparities in fetal, first day, and combined fetal-first day mortality have persisted and reflect discrepancies in care provision or other factors more challenging to measure.
  • Authors

    Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Pubmed Id

  • 2009222
  • Author List

  • Wingate MS; Barfield WD; Petrini J; Smith R
  • Volume

  • 102
  • Issue

  • 8