Leaders in public organizations are adopting many private sector management practices to control costs and increase efficiency. Nowhere is this more evident than among state health agencies. State health agencies were encouraged to change the way they operate by the 1988 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report on The Future of Public Health. This report portrayed public health as being in disarray. To address major deficiencies identified by the IOM study, some public health leaders have reevaluated their environments, reconfigured their organizations, and adopted a strategic mindset. The purpose of this research is to explore the various organizational configurations of state health agencies. Replicating methods used in studies of private sector organizations, five distinct strategic configurations or archetypes were identified. This comprehensive public health agency taxonomy will assist future researchers in analyzing public health organizations' environments, structures, and strategies.