Older adults are disproportionately affected by diabetes, which is associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, decreased quality of life (QOL), and increased health care costs. The purpose of the current study was to assess the relationships between social support, self-efficacy, and QOL in a sample of 187 older African American and Caucasian individuals with diabetes. Greater satisfaction with social support related to diabetes (but not the amount of support received) was significantly correlated with QOL. In addition, individuals with higher self-efficacy in managing diabetes had better QOL. In a covariate-adjusted regression model, self-efficacy remained a significant predictor of QOL. Findings suggest the potential importance of incorporating the self-efficacy concept within diabetes management and treatment to empower older adults living with diabetes to adhere to care. Further research is needed to determine whether improving self-efficacy among vulnerable older adult populations may positively influence QOL.