Background: Many newly diagnosed patients present to outpatient care with advanced HIV infection. More timely HIV diagnosis and initiation of care has the potential to improve individual health outcomes and has public health implications. Objective: to assess temporal trends in late presentation for outpatient HIV medial care as measured by CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 and the mplications on short-term (1-year) mortality. Design: We conducted a cohort study nested in a prospective HIV clinical cohort including patients establishing initial outpatient HIV treatment between 2000-2010. Time series regression analysis evaluated temporal trends in late presentation for care measured by the proportion of patients with a CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 or an opportunistic infection at enrollment, and also evaluated trends in shortterm mortality. Participants: Patients establishing initial outpatient HIV treatment between 2000-2010 at an academic HIV clinic. Main measures: The proportion of patients with a CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 or an opportunistic infection at initial presentation and short-term (1-year) mortality following clinic enrollment. Key results: Among 1121 patients, 41% had an initial CD4 count <200 cells/mm3, 25% had an opportunistic infection and 2.4% died within 1-year of their initial visit. Time series regression analysis demonstrated significant reductions in late presentation for HIV care and decreases in short-term mortality with temporal improvement preceding updated CDC HIV testing recommendations. Conclusion: We observed a significant decline in the number of patients presenting for outpatient HIV care with advanced disease, particularly in 2006-2010. A significant trend in improved short-term survival among patients establishing HIV care was also observed, likely related to more timely presentation for outpatient care in more recent years. © 2011 Society of General Internal Medicine.