In this study we examine the impact of the Behavior Education Program (BEP; Hawken, MacLeod, & Rawlings, 2007) with four middle school students who were not responsive to a comprehensive primary prevention program including academic, behavioral and social components. To extend this line of inquiry we (a) conducted a functional behavioral assessment prior to implementing the BEP and (b) employed a changing criterion design to determine if a functional relation could be established between the introduction of the BEP program and changes in student performance. Results suggest this intervention may be effective for students whose challenging behaviors are maintained by attention and escape. However, the variability in scores raises questions and concerns regarding the nature of the behavior change that may have occurred. Additional limitations and future direction are discussed.