Twenty-four years after apparently successful treatment for nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's disease (nLPHD), a 41-year old male developed "B" symptoms and extensive adenopathy. A right axillary lymph node biopsy showed two distinct regions including (1) histiocyte-rich B-cell lymphoma and (2) diffuse small T-cell lymphoma. A clonal rearrangement of the gene for the T-cell receptor beta chain confirmed the presence of a T-cell neoplasm, and this was further confirmed by selective polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on this morphologic zone. PCR on the morphologic B-cell lymphoma confirmed the presence of an immunoglobulin gene rearrangement. These two regions were separated by a less-defined zone containing a mixture of small CD57 positive T lymphocytes, small B lymphocytes, and rare lymphocytic and histiocytic (L&H) cells, highly suggestive of recurrent LPHD. The development of composite B-cell and T-cell lymphoma in this patient raises the speculation that nLPHD may be a neoplasm of lymphoid cells, which can differentiate in both B- and T-cell directions, with the "L&H" cells constituting their B-cell progeny. Copyright © 1999 by W.B. Saunders Company.