Social cognitive theory (SCT) measures related to exercise adherence in head and neck cancer (HNCa) patients were developed. Enrolling 101 HNCa patients, psychometric properties and associations with exercise behavior were examined for barriers self-efficacy, perceived barriers interference, outcome expectations, enjoyment, and goal setting. Cronbach's alpha ranged from.84 to.95; only enjoyment demonstrated limited test-retest reliability. Subscales for barriers self-efficacy (motivational, physical health) and barriers interference (motivational, physical health, time, environment) were identified. Multiple SCT constructs were cross-sectional correlates and prospective predictors of exercise behavior. These measures can improve the application of the SCT to exercise adherence in HNCa patients.