Substance abuse remains one of the most pressing health issues in the United States today, yet treatment supply continues to lag far behind need. Given the hostile environments treatment facilities face, their survival is a matter of pressing policy concern. Results from analyses of National Drug Abuse Treatment System Survey (NDATSS) data from 1988 through 2000 suggest that organizational attributes such as age, size, and client severity and resource dependencies such as reliance on government revenue affect survival, but their effects change over time. By the mid-1990s, director involvement in state and local policy making was positively associated with subsequent survival; later that decade, directors' professional credentials affected survival as well. Results also show that serving clients with multiple substance abuse problems became a survival liability by the late 1990s. Facilities that treat clients with multiple addictions may need additional financial support to serve these particularly vulnerable clients. © 2005 Sage Publications.